How to maximize employee participation in HSA plans
High-deductible health plans (HDHPs) not only offer employees the opportunity to save on their premium contributions, they also provide access to what are commonly touted as triple-tax-advantaged health savings accounts (HSAs).
HSA users can put away money tax-free, and account distributions for eligible healthcare costs aren’t subject to federal income tax. Plus, these accounts offer users the option to invest and any investment returns aren’t subject to taxation. Not even the storied 401(k) promises this much bang for the proverbial buck. In fact, HSAs offer the best of pre-tax 401(k) and Roth contributions.
But, no matter how sweet a tax deal this is, for most of the over 25 million account holders, investing takes a back seat to current healthcare needs. According to EBRI, 96% of account holders don’t invest any portion of their balance, which leaves just 4% taking advantage of all three tax-advantaged components of the HSA. Instead, HSA users fall into two distinct categories: spenders and savers, with spenders representing over three-quarters of account holders.
In 2017, the average deductible for employee-only coverage was $2,447 and almost a quarter of employees covered under one of these plans had a deductible of $3,000 or more.
Let’s imagine it’s 2017, and our sample employee — let’s call her Emily — has a $2,500 deductible. Emily funded her HSA to the 2017 maximum of $3,400. If Emily had healthcare costs that totally eroded her deductible and she used her HSA dollars to fund them, at the end of the year Emily would have $900 left in her account ($3,400 maximum minus $2,500 to cover her deductible). That assumes no additional cost-sharing or eligible expenses.
However, Emily is in the minority. Only 13% of employees are fully funding their accounts, rendering an investment threshold potentially out of reach for most people, especially when they are using their HSA dollars for out-of-pocket healthcare costs.
With such a small percentage of HSA owners taking advantage of investment opportunities, finding effective ways to support the spending or saving habits of the majority of users seems to be tantamount. So is helping them address their concerns about deductible risk. As employers help people become smarter consumers, they may be able to build their accounts over time and ultimately pull the investment lever.
So, how can employers support these spenders and savers?
Encourage people to contribute, or to contribute more. EBRI found that only half of account holders put anything in their HSA in 2017, and just under 40% of accounts received no contributions — including employer dollars. Employer contributions can help overcome employees’ reluctance to enroll in an HDHP, but the way they are designed matters. Matching contributions act as a strong incentive for employees to save while also protecting the most vulnerable employees from having to shoulder the entire burden of out-of-pocket healthcare costs.
Another technique to help address employees’ anxiety around a high deductible is to pre-fund out-of-pocket costs by allowing employees to borrow from future contributions. If the employee incurs costs but doesn’t have enough HSA dollars to cover them, they can use future contributions as an advance against current out-of-pocket expenses. The employer provides the funds up front and the employee pays back those funds through payroll deductions. This acts as a safety net for new account holders or those without substantive balances.
Drive people toward the maximum contribution. With fewer than 20% of employees fully funding their HSA, there’s certainly room to move the needle. While additional contributions may not be possible for all employees, reinforcing the tax advantages and the portability of the HSA may help people divert more dollars to insulate themselves against healthcare costs.
Highlight ways to save on healthcare costs. When employees are funding their care before meeting a high deductible, help them spend those HSA dollars wisely. Promote telehealth if you offer it and remind employees about the most appropriate places to get care (for example, urgent care versus the emergency room). Reinforce the preventive aspects of your healthcare plan, including physicals, screenings and routine immunizations. If you have a wellness program that includes bloodwork and biometric testing, make sure you tie this into your healthcare consumerism messaging. There’s generally a lot of care employees can get at no cost, and it helps when you remind them.
Don’t lose contributors to an over-emphasis on investing. The tax advantages of investing in an HSA are undeniable, but most people are just not there yet. When we describe HSAs as a long-term retirement savings vehicle, we may inadvertently be messaging to non-participants that these accounts aren’t for them. Speak to the majority with messaging around funding near-term healthcare costs on a tax-advantaged basis and the flexibility to use HSA dollars for a wide variety of expenses beyond just doctor and pharmacy costs. Investing information should be included, but it shouldn’t be the primary focus.
HSAs are gaining in popularity, and the majority of account holders are using them to self-fund their healthcare, which is a good thing. A small but growing number are taking advantage of their plans’ investment options. Employees eventually may become investors as their accounts grow and they better understand the opportunity to grow their assets and save for the longer term. For now, however, the educational and engagement focus for HSA plan sponsors should primarily be around participation, maximizing contributions and spending HSA dollars wisely.